Gherkin Reference

Gherkin uses a set of special keywords to give structure and meaning to executable specifications. Each keyword is translated to many spoken languages; in this reference we’ll use English.

Most lines in a Gherkin document start with one of the keywords.

Comment lines are allowed anywhere in the file. They begin with zero or more spaces, followed by a hash sign (#) and some text. Comments do have to start on a new line.

Either spaces or tabs may be used for indentation. The recommended indentation level is two spaces. Here is an example:

Feature: Guess the word

  # The first example has two steps
  Scenario: Maker starts a game
    When the Maker starts a game
    Then the Maker waits for a Breaker to join

  # The second example has three steps
  Scenario: Breaker joins a game
    Given the Maker has started a game with the word "silky"
    When the Breaker joins the Maker's game
    Then the Breaker must guess a word with 5 characters

The trailing portion (after the keyword) of each step is matched to a code block, called a step definition.

Keywords

Each line that isn’t a blank line has to start with a Gherkin keyword, followed by any text you like. The only exceptions are the feature and scenario descriptions.

The primary keywords are:

  • Feature
  • Example (Scenario and Scenario Outline are synonyms)
  • Given, When, Then, And, But (steps)
  • Background
  • Combinations (Examples is a synonym)

There are a few secondary keywords as well:

  • """ (Doc Strings)
  • | (Data Tables)
  • @ (Tags)
  • # (Comments)

Localisation

Gherkin is localised for many spoken languages; each has their own localised equivalent of these keywords.

Feature

The purpose of the Feature keyword is to provide a high-level description of a software feature, and to group related scenarios.

The first primary keyword in a Gherkin document must always be Feature, followed by a : and a short text that describes the feature.

You can add free-form text underneath Feature to add more description.

These description lines are ignored by Cucumber at runtime, but are available for reporting (They are included by default in html reports).

Feature: Guess the word

  The word guess game is a turn-based game for two players.
  The Maker makes a word for the Breaker to guess. The game
  is over when the Breaker guesses the Maker's word.

  Example: Maker starts a game

The name and the optional description have no special meaning to Cucumber. Their purpose is to provide a place for you to document important aspects of the feature, such as a brief explanation and a list of business rules (general acceptance criteria).

The free format description for Feature ends when you start a line with the keyword Scenario or Scenario Outline.

You can place tags above Feature to group related features, independent of your file and directory structure.

Descriptions

Free-form descriptions (as described above for Feature) can also be placed underneath Example, Background, Scenario and Scenario Outline.

You can write anything you like, as long as no line starts with a keyword.

Example

This is a concrete example that illustrates a business rule. It consists of a list of steps.

You can have as many steps as you like, but we recommend you keep the number at 3-5 per scenario. If they become longer than that, they lose their expressive power as specification and documentation.

In addition to being a specification and documentation, a scenario is also a test. As a whole, your scenarios are an executable specification of the system.

Examples follow this same pattern:

  • Describe an initial context (Given steps)
  • Describe an event (When steps)
  • Describe an expected outcome (Then steps)

Steps

Each step starts with Given, When, Then, And, or But.

Cucumber executes each step in a scenario one at a time, in the sequence you’ve written them in. When Cucumber tries to execute a step, it looks for a matching step definition to execute.

Keywords are not taken into account when looking for a step definition. This means you cannot have a Given, When, Then, And or But step with the same text as another step.

Cucumber considers the following steps duplicates:

Given there is money in my account
Then there is money in my account

This might seem like a limitation, but it forces you to come up with a less ambiguous, more clear domain language:

Given my account has a balance of £430
Then my account should have a balance of £430

Given

Given steps are used to describe the initial context of the system - the scene of the scenario. It is typically something that happened in the past.

When Cucumber executes a Given step, it will configure the system to be in a well-defined state, such as creating and configuring objects or adding data to a test database.

The purpose of Given steps is to put the system in a known state before the user (or external system) starts interacting with the system (in the When steps). Avoid talking about user interaction in Given’s. If you were creating use cases, Given’s would be your preconditions.

It’s okay to have several Given steps (just use And or But for number 2 and upwards to make it more readable).

Examples:

  • Mickey and Minnie have started a game
  • I am logged in
  • Joe has a balance of £42

When

When steps are used to describe an event, or an action. This can be a person interacting with the system, or it can be an event triggered by another system.

It’s strongly recommended you only have a single When step per Scenario. If you feel compelled to add more, it’s usually a sign that you should split the scenario up into multiple scenarios.

Examples:

  • Guess a word
  • Invite a friend
  • Withdraw money

Imagine it's 1922

Most software does something people could do manually (just not as efficiently).

Try hard to come up with examples that don’t make any assumptions about technology or user interface. Imagine it’s 1922, when there were no computers.

Implementation details should be hidden in the step definitions.

Then

Then steps are used to describe an expected outcome, or result.

The step definition of a Then step should use an assertion to compare the actual outcome (what the system actually does) to the expected outcome (what the step says the system is supposed to do).

An observation should be on an observable output. That is, something that comes out of the system (report, user interface, message), and not something deeply buried inside it (like a database).

Examples:

  • See that the guessed word was wrong
  • Receive an invitation
  • Card should be swallowed

While it might be tempting to implement Then steps to just look in the database - resist that temptation!

You should only verify outcome that is observable for the user (or external system), and databases usually are not.

And, But

If you have several Given’s, When’s, or Thens, you could write:

Example: Multiple Givens
  Given one thing
  Given another thing
  Given yet another thing
  When I open my eyes
  Then I should see something
  Then I shouldn't see something else

Or, you could make it read more fluidly by writing:

Example: Multiple Givens
  Given one thing
  And another thing
  And yet another thing
  When I open my eyes
  Then I should see something
  But I shouldn't see something else

Background

Occasionally you’ll find yourself repeating the same Given steps in all of the scenarios in a feature.

Since it is repeated in every scenario, this is an indication that those steps are not essential to describe the scenarios; they are incidental details. You can literally move such Given steps to the background, by grouping them under a Background section.

A Background allows you to add some context to the scenarios in the feature. It can contain one or more Given steps.

A Background is run before each scenario, but after any Before hooks. In your feature file, put the Background before the first Scenario.

You can only have one set of Background steps per feature. If you need different Background steps for different scenarios, you’ll need to split them into different feature files.

For example:

Feature: Multiple site support
  Only blog owners can post to a blog, except administrators,
  who can post to all blogs.

  Background:
    Given a global administrator named "Greg"
    And a blog named "Greg's anti-tax rants"
    And a customer named "Dr. Bill"
    And a blog named "Expensive Therapy" owned by "Dr. Bill"

  Scenario: Dr. Bill posts to his own blog
    Given I am logged in as Dr. Bill
    When I try to post to "Expensive Therapy"
    Then I should see "Your article was published."

  Scenario: Dr. Bill tries to post to somebody else's blog, and fails
    Given I am logged in as Dr. Bill
    When I try to post to "Greg's anti-tax rants"
    Then I should see "Hey! That's not your blog!"

  Scenario: Greg posts to a client's blog
    Given I am logged in as Greg
    When I try to post to "Expensive Therapy"
    Then I should see "Your article was published."

For a less explicit alternative to Background, check out tagged hooks.

Tips for using Background

  • Don’t use Background to set up complicated states, unless that state is actually something the client needs to know.
    • For example, if the user and site names don’t matter to the client, use a higher-level step such as Given I am logged in as a site owner.
  • Keep your Background section short.
    • The client needs to actually remember this stuff when reading the scenarios. If the Background is more than 4 lines long, consider moving some of the irrelevant details into higher-level steps.
  • Make your Background section vivid.
    • Use colourful names, and try to tell a story. The human brain keeps track of stories much better than it keeps track of names like "User A", "User B", "Site 1", and so on.
  • Keep your scenarios short, and don’t have too many.
    • If the Background section has scrolled off the screen, the reader no longer has a full overview of whats happening. Think about using higher-level steps, or splitting the *.feature file.

Scenario Outline

The Scenario Outline keyword can be used to run the same Scenario multiple times, with different combinations of values.

Copying and pasting scenarios to use different values quickly becomes tedious and repetitive:

Scenario: eat 5 out of 12
  Given there are 12 cucumbers
  When I eat 5 cucumbers
  Then I should have 7 cucumbers

Scenario: eat 5 out of 20
  Given there are 20 cucumbers
  When I eat 5 cucumbers
  Then I should have 15 cucumbers

We can collapse these two similar scenarios into a Scenario Outline.

Scenario outlines allow us to more concisely express these scenarios through the use of a template with < >-delimited parameters:

Scenario Outline: eating
  Given there are <start> cucumbers
  When I eat <eat> cucumbers
  Then I should have <left> cucumbers

  Examples:
    | start | eat | left |
    |    12 |   5 |    7 |
    |    20 |   5 |   15 |

A Scenario Outline must contain an Examples section. Its steps are interpreted as a template which is never directly run. Instead, the Scenario Outline is run once for each row in the Examples section beneath it (not counting the first header row).

The steps can use <> delimited parameters that reference headers in the examples table. Cucumber will replace these parameters with values from the table before it tries to match the step against a step definition.

You can also use parameters in multiline step arguments.

Step Arguments

In some cases you might want to pass more data to a step than fits on a single line. For this purpose Gherkin has Doc Strings and Data Tables.

Doc Strings

Doc Strings are handy for passing a larger piece of text to a step definition.

The text should be offset by delimiters consisting of three double-quote marks on lines of their own:

Given a blog post named "Random" with Markdown body
  """
  Some Title, Eh?
  ===============
  Here is the first paragraph of my blog post. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet,
  consectetur adipiscing elit.
  """

In your step definition, there’s no need to find this text and match it in your pattern. It will automatically be passed as the last argument in the step definition.

Indentation of the opening """ is unimportant, although common practice is two spaces in from the enclosing step. The indentation inside the triple quotes, however, is significant. Each line of the Doc String will be de-indented according to the opening """. Indentation beyond the column of the opening “”” will therefore be preserved.

Data Tables

Data Tables are handy for passing a list of values to a step definition:

Given the following users exist:
  | name   | email              | twitter         |
  | Aslak  | [email protected]  | @aslak_hellesoy |
  | Julien | [email protected] | @jbpros         |
  | Matt   | [email protected]   | @mattwynne      |

Just like Doc Strings, Data Tables will be passed to the step definition as the last argument.

Cucumber provides a rich API for manipulating tables from within step definitions. See the Data Table API reference reference for more details.

Spoken Languages

The language you choose for Gherkin should be the same language your users and domain experts use when they talk about the domain. Translating between two languages should be avoided.

This is why Gherkin has been translates to over 70 languages.

Here is a Gherkin scenario written in Norwegian:

# language: no
Funksjonalitet: Gjett et ord

  Eksempel: Ordmaker starter et spill
    Når Ordmaker starter et spill
    Så må Ordmaker vente på at Gjetter blir med

  Example: Gjetter blir med
    Gitt at Ordmaker har startet et spill med ordet "bløtt"
    Når Gjetter blir med på Ordmakers spill
    Så må Gjetter gjette et ord på 5 bokstaver

A # language: header on the first line of a feature file tells Cucumber what spoken language to use - for example # language: fr for French. If you omit this header, Cucumber will default to English (en).

Some Cucumber implementations also let you set the default language in the configuration, so you don’t need to place the # language header in every file.

Gherkin Dialects

Language Feature Background Scenario Scenario Outline Examples Given When Then And But
Afrikaans (af) Funksie
Besigheid Behoefte
Vermoë
Agtergrond
Situasie
Situasie Uiteensetting
Voorbeelde
*
Gegewe
*
Wanneer
*
Dan
*
En
*
Maar
Armenian (am) Ֆունկցիոնալություն
Հատկություն
Կոնտեքստ
Սցենար
Սցենարի կառուցվացքը
Օրինակներ
*
Դիցուք
*
Եթե
Երբ
*
Ապա
*
Եվ
*
Բայց
Arabic (ar) خاصية
الخلفية
سيناريو
سيناريو مخطط
امثلة
*
بفرض
*
متى
عندما
*
اذاً
ثم
*
و
*
لكن
Asturian (ast) Carauterística
Antecedentes
Casu
Esbozu del casu
Exemplos
*
Dáu
Dada
Daos
Daes
*
Cuando
*
Entós
*
Y
Ya
*
Peru
Azerbaijani (az) Özəllik
Keçmiş
Kontekst
Ssenari
Ssenarinin strukturu
Nümunələr
*
Tutaq ki
Verilir
*
Əgər
Nə vaxt ki
*
O halda
*

Həm
*
Amma
Ancaq
Bulgarian (bg) Функционалност
Предистория
Сценарий
Рамка на сценарий
Примери
*
Дадено
*
Когато
*
То
*
И
*
Но
Malay (bm) Fungsi
Latar Belakang
Senario
Situasi
Keadaan
Kerangka Senario
Kerangka Situasi
Kerangka Keadaan
Garis Panduan Senario
Contoh
*
Diberi
Bagi
*
Apabila
*
Maka
Kemudian
*
Dan
*
Tetapi
Tapi
Bosnian (bs) Karakteristika
Pozadina
Scenariju
Scenario
Scenariju-obris
Scenario-outline
Primjeri
*
Dato
*
Kada
*
Zatim
*
I
A
*
Ali
Catalan (ca) Característica
Funcionalitat
Rerefons
Antecedents
Escenari
Esquema de l'escenari
Exemples
*
Donat
Donada
Atès
Atesa
*
Quan
*
Aleshores
Cal
*
I
*
Però
Czech (cs) Požadavek
Pozadí
Kontext
Scénář
Náčrt Scénáře
Osnova scénáře
Příklady
*
Pokud
Za předpokladu
*
Když
*
Pak
*
A také
A
*
Ale
Welsh (cy-GB) Arwedd
Cefndir
Scenario
Scenario Amlinellol
Enghreifftiau
*
Anrhegedig a
*
Pryd
*
Yna
*
A
*
Ond
Danish (da) Egenskab
Baggrund
Scenarie
Abstrakt Scenario
Eksempler
*
Givet
*
Når
*

*
Og
*
Men
German (de) Funktionalität
Grundlage
Szenario
Szenariogrundriss
Beispiele
*
Angenommen
Gegeben sei
Gegeben seien
*
Wenn
*
Dann
*
Und
*
Aber
Greek (el) Δυνατότητα
Λειτουργία
Υπόβαθρο
Σενάριο
Περιγραφή Σεναρίου
Περίγραμμα Σεναρίου
Παραδείγματα
Σενάρια
*
Δεδομένου
*
Όταν
*
Τότε
*
Και
*
Αλλά
Emoji (em) 📚
💤
📕
📖
📓
*
😐
*
🎬
*
🙏
*
😂
*
😔
English (en) Feature
Business Need
Ability
Background
Scenario
Scenario Outline
Scenario Template
Examples
Scenarios
*
Given
*
When
*
Then
*
And
*
But
Scouse (en-Scouse) Feature
Dis is what went down
The thing of it is
Wharrimean is
Examples
*
Givun
Youse know when youse got
*
Wun
Youse know like when
*
Dun
Den youse gotta
*
An
*
Buh
Australian (en-au) Pretty much
First off
Awww, look mate
Reckon it's like
You'll wanna
*
Y'know
*
It's just unbelievable
*
But at the end of the day I reckon
*
Too right
*
Yeah nah
LOLCAT (en-lol) OH HAI
B4
MISHUN
MISHUN SRSLY
EXAMPLZ
*
I CAN HAZ
*
WEN
*
DEN
*
AN
*
BUT
Old English (en-old) Hwaet
Hwæt
Aer
Ær
Swa
Swa hwaer swa
Swa hwær swa
Se the
Se þe
Se ðe
*
Thurh
Þurh
Ðurh
*
Tha
Þa
Ða
*
Tha
Þa
Ða
Tha the
Þa þe
Ða ðe
*
Ond
7
*
Ac
Pirate (en-pirate) Ahoy matey!
Yo-ho-ho
Heave to
Shiver me timbers
Dead men tell no tales
*
Gangway!
*
Blimey!
*
Let go and haul
*
Aye
*
Avast!
Esperanto (eo) Trajto
Fono
Scenaro
Kazo
Konturo de la scenaro
Skizo
Kazo-skizo
Ekzemploj
*
Donitaĵo
Komence
*
Se
*
Do
*
Kaj
*
Sed
Spanish (es) Característica
Antecedentes
Escenario
Esquema del escenario
Ejemplos
*
Dado
Dada
Dados
Dadas
*
Cuando
*
Entonces
*
Y
E
*
Pero
Estonian (et) Omadus
Taust
Stsenaarium
Raamstsenaarium
Juhtumid
*
Eeldades
*
Kui
*
Siis
*
Ja
*
Kuid
Persian (fa) وِیژگی
زمینه
سناریو
الگوی سناریو
نمونه ها
*
با فرض
*
هنگامی
*
آنگاه
*
و
*
اما
Finnish (fi) Ominaisuus
Tausta
Tapaus
Tapausaihio
Tapaukset
*
Oletetaan
*
Kun
*
Niin
*
Ja
*
Mutta
French (fr) Fonctionnalité
Contexte
Scénario
Plan du scénario
Plan du Scénario
Exemples
*
Soit
Etant donné que
Etant donné qu'
Etant donné
Etant donnée
Etant donnés
Etant données
Étant donné que
Étant donné qu'
Étant donné
Étant donnée
Étant donnés
Étant données
*
Quand
Lorsque
Lorsqu'
*
Alors
*
Et que
Et qu'
Et
*
Mais que
Mais qu'
Mais
Irish (ga) Gné
Cúlra
Cás
Cás Achomair
Samplaí
*
Cuir i gcás go
Cuir i gcás nach
Cuir i gcás gur
Cuir i gcás nár
*
Nuair a
Nuair nach
Nuair ba
Nuair nár
*
Ansin
*
Agus
*
Ach
Gujarati (gj) લક્ષણ
વ્યાપાર જરૂર
ક્ષમતા
બેકગ્રાઉન્ડ
સ્થિતિ
પરિદ્દશ્ય રૂપરેખા
પરિદ્દશ્ય ઢાંચો
ઉદાહરણો
*
આપેલ છે
*
ક્યારે
*
પછી
*
અને
*
પણ
Galician (gl) Característica
Contexto
Escenario
Esbozo do escenario
Exemplos
*
Dado
Dada
Dados
Dadas
*
Cando
*
Entón
Logo
*
E
*
Mais
Pero
Hebrew (he) תכונה
רקע
תרחיש
תבנית תרחיש
דוגמאות
*
בהינתן
*
כאשר
*
אז
אזי
*
וגם
*
אבל
Hindi (hi) रूप लेख
पृष्ठभूमि
परिदृश्य
परिदृश्य रूपरेखा
उदाहरण
*
अगर
यदि
चूंकि
*
जब
कदा
*
तब
तदा
*
और
तथा
*
पर
परन्तु
किन्तु
Croatian (hr) Osobina
Mogućnost
Mogucnost
Pozadina
Scenarij
Skica
Koncept
Primjeri
Scenariji
*
Zadan
Zadani
Zadano
*
Kada
Kad
*
Onda
*
I
*
Ali
Creole (ht) Karakteristik
Mak
Fonksyonalite
Kontèks
Istorik
Senaryo
Plan senaryo
Plan Senaryo
Senaryo deskripsyon
Senaryo Deskripsyon
Dyagram senaryo
Dyagram Senaryo
Egzanp
*
Sipoze
Sipoze ke
Sipoze Ke
*

Le
*
Lè sa a
Le sa a
*
Ak
Epi
E
*
Men
Hungarian (hu) Jellemző
Háttér
Forgatókönyv
Forgatókönyv vázlat
Példák
*
Amennyiben
Adott
*
Majd
Ha
Amikor
*
Akkor
*
És
*
De
Indonesian (id) Fitur
Dasar
Skenario
Skenario konsep
Contoh
*
Dengan
*
Ketika
*
Maka
*
Dan
*
Tapi
Icelandic (is) Eiginleiki
Bakgrunnur
Atburðarás
Lýsing Atburðarásar
Lýsing Dæma
Dæmi
Atburðarásir
*
Ef
*
Þegar
*
Þá
*
Og
*
En
Italian (it) Funzionalità
Contesto
Scenario
Schema dello scenario
Esempi
*
Dato
Data
Dati
Date
*
Quando
*
Allora
*
E
*
Ma
Japanese (ja) フィーチャ
機能
背景
シナリオ
シナリオアウトライン
シナリオテンプレート
テンプレ
シナリオテンプレ

サンプル
*
前提
*
もし
*
ならば
*
かつ
*
しかし
但し
ただし
Javanese (jv) Fitur
Dasar
Skenario
Konsep skenario
Conto
Contone
*
Nalika
Nalikaning
*
Manawa
Menawa
*
Njuk
Banjur
*
Lan
*
Tapi
Nanging
Ananging
Georgian (ka) თვისება
კონტექსტი
სცენარის
სცენარის ნიმუში
მაგალითები
*
მოცემული
*
როდესაც
*
მაშინ
*
და
*
მაგ­რამ
Kannada (kn) ಹೆಚ್ಚಳ
ಹಿನ್ನೆಲೆ
ಕಥಾಸಾರಾಂಶ
ವಿವರಣೆ
ಉದಾಹರಣೆಗಳು
*
ನೀಡಿದ
*
ಸ್ಥಿತಿಯನ್ನು
*
ನಂತರ
*
ಮತ್ತು
*
ಆದರೆ
Korean (ko) 기능
배경
시나리오
시나리오 개요

*
조건
먼저
*
만일
만약
*
그러면
*
그리고
*
하지만

Lithuanian (lt) Savybė
Kontekstas
Scenarijus
Scenarijaus šablonas
Pavyzdžiai
Scenarijai
Variantai
*
Duota
*
Kai
*
Tada
*
Ir
*
Bet
Luxemburgish (lu) Funktionalitéit
Hannergrond
Szenario
Plang vum Szenario
Beispiller
*
ugeholl
*
wann
*
dann
*
an
a
*
awer

Latvian (lv) Funkcionalitāte
Fīča
Konteksts
Situācija
Scenārijs
Scenārijs pēc parauga
Piemēri
Paraugs
*
Kad
*
Ja
*
Tad
*
Un
*
Bet
Macedonian (mk-Cyrl) Функционалност
Бизнис потреба
Можност
Контекст
Содржина
Сценарио
На пример
Преглед на сценарија
Скица
Концепт
Примери
Сценарија
*
Дадено
Дадена
*
Кога
*
Тогаш
*
И
*
Но
Macedonian (Latin) (mk-Latn) Funkcionalnost
Biznis potreba
Mozhnost
Kontekst
Sodrzhina
Scenario
Na primer
Pregled na scenarija
Skica
Koncept
Primeri
Scenaria
*
Dadeno
Dadena
*
Koga
*
Togash
*
I
*
No
Mongolian (mn) Функц
Функционал
Агуулга
Сценар
Сценарын төлөвлөгөө
Тухайлбал
*
Өгөгдсөн нь
Анх
*
Хэрэв
*
Тэгэхэд
Үүний дараа
*
Мөн
Тэгээд
*
Гэхдээ
Харин
Dutch (nl) Functionaliteit
Achtergrond
Scenario
Abstract Scenario
Voorbeelden
*
Gegeven
Stel
*
Als
Wanneer
*
Dan
*
En
*
Maar
Norwegian (no) Egenskap
Bakgrunn
Scenario
Scenariomal
Abstrakt Scenario
Eksempler
*
Gitt
*
Når
*

*
Og
*
Men
Panjabi (pa) ਖਾਸੀਅਤ
ਮੁਹਾਂਦਰਾ
ਨਕਸ਼ ਨੁਹਾਰ
ਪਿਛੋਕੜ
ਪਟਕਥਾ
ਪਟਕਥਾ ਢਾਂਚਾ
ਪਟਕਥਾ ਰੂਪ ਰੇਖਾ
ਉਦਾਹਰਨਾਂ
*
ਜੇਕਰ
ਜਿਵੇਂ ਕਿ
*
ਜਦੋਂ
*
ਤਦ
*
ਅਤੇ
*
ਪਰ
Polish (pl) Właściwość
Funkcja
Aspekt
Potrzeba biznesowa
Założenia
Scenariusz
Szablon scenariusza
Przykłady
*
Zakładając
Mając
Zakładając, że
*
Jeżeli
Jeśli
Gdy
Kiedy
*
Wtedy
*
Oraz
I
*
Ale
Portuguese (pt) Funcionalidade
Característica
Caracteristica
Contexto
Cenário de Fundo
Cenario de Fundo
Fundo
Cenário
Cenario
Esquema do Cenário
Esquema do Cenario
Delineação do Cenário
Delineacao do Cenario
Exemplos
Cenários
Cenarios
*
Dado
Dada
Dados
Dadas
*
Quando
*
Então
Entao
*
E
*
Mas
Romanian (ro) Functionalitate
Funcționalitate
Funcţionalitate
Context
Scenariu
Structura scenariu
Structură scenariu
Exemple
*
Date fiind
Dat fiind
Dată fiind
Dati fiind
Dați fiind
Daţi fiind
*
Cand
Când
*
Atunci
*
Si
Și
Şi
*
Dar
Russian (ru) Функция
Функциональность
Функционал
Свойство
Предыстория
Контекст
Сценарий
Структура сценария
Примеры
*
Допустим
Дано
Пусть
Если
*
Когда
*
То
Затем
Тогда
*
И
К тому же
Также
*
Но
А
Slovak (sk) Požiadavka
Funkcia
Vlastnosť
Pozadie
Scenár
Náčrt Scenáru
Náčrt Scenára
Osnova Scenára
Príklady
*
Pokiaľ
Za predpokladu
*
Keď
Ak
*
Tak
Potom
*
A
A tiež
A taktiež
A zároveň
*
Ale
Slovenian (sl) Funkcionalnost
Funkcija
Možnosti
Moznosti
Lastnost
Značilnost
Kontekst
Osnova
Ozadje
Scenarij
Primer
Struktura scenarija
Skica
Koncept
Oris scenarija
Osnutek
Primeri
Scenariji
Dano
Podano
Zaradi
Privzeto
Ko
Ce
Če
Kadar
Nato
Potem
Takrat
In
Ter
Toda
Ampak
Vendar
Serbian (sr-Cyrl) Функционалност
Могућност
Особина
Контекст
Основа
Позадина
Сценарио
Пример
Структура сценарија
Скица
Концепт
Примери
Сценарији
*
За дато
За дате
За дати
*
Када
Кад
*
Онда
*
И
*
Али
Serbian (Latin) (sr-Latn) Funkcionalnost
Mogućnost
Mogucnost
Osobina
Kontekst
Osnova
Pozadina
Scenario
Primer
Struktura scenarija
Skica
Koncept
Primeri
Scenariji
*
Za dato
Za date
Za dati
*
Kada
Kad
*
Onda
*
I
*
Ali
Swedish (sv) Egenskap
Bakgrund
Scenario
Abstrakt Scenario
Scenariomall
Exempel
*
Givet
*
När
*

*
Och
*
Men
Tamil (ta) அம்சம்
வணிக தேவை
திறன்
பின்னணி
காட்சி
காட்சி சுருக்கம்
காட்சி வார்ப்புரு
எடுத்துக்காட்டுகள்
காட்சிகள்
நிலைமைகளில்
*
கொடுக்கப்பட்ட
*
எப்போது
*
அப்பொழுது
*
மேலும்
மற்றும்
*
ஆனால்
Thai (th) โครงหลัก
ความต้องการทางธุรกิจ
ความสามารถ
แนวคิด
เหตุการณ์
สรุปเหตุการณ์
โครงสร้างของเหตุการณ์
ชุดของตัวอย่าง
ชุดของเหตุการณ์
*
กำหนดให้
*
เมื่อ
*
ดังนั้น
*
และ
*
แต่
Telugu (tl) గుణము
నేపథ్యం
సన్నివేశం
కథనం
ఉదాహరణలు
*
చెప్పబడినది
*
ఈ పరిస్థితిలో
*
అప్పుడు
*
మరియు
*
కాని
Klingon (tlh) Qap
Qu'meH 'ut
perbogh
poQbogh malja'
laH
mo'
lut
lut chovnatlh
ghantoH
lutmey
*
ghu' noblu'
DaH ghu' bejlu'
*
qaSDI'
*
vaj
*
'ej
latlh
*
'ach
'a
Turkish (tr) Özellik
Geçmiş
Senaryo
Senaryo taslağı
Örnekler
*
Diyelim ki
*
Eğer ki
*
O zaman
*
Ve
*
Fakat
Ama
Tatar (tt) Мөмкинлек
Үзенчәлеклелек
Кереш
Сценарий
Сценарийның төзелеше
Үрнәкләр
Мисаллар
*
Әйтик
*
Әгәр
*
Нәтиҗәдә
*
Һәм
Вә
*
Ләкин
Әмма
Ukrainian (uk) Функціонал
Передумова
Сценарій
Структура сценарію
Приклади
*
Припустимо
Припустимо, що
Нехай
Дано
*
Якщо
Коли
*
То
Тоді
*
І
А також
Та
*
Але
Urdu (ur) صلاحیت
کاروبار کی ضرورت
خصوصیت
پس منظر
منظرنامہ
منظر نامے کا خاکہ
مثالیں
*
اگر
بالفرض
فرض کیا
*
جب
*
پھر
تب
*
اور
*
لیکن
Uzbek (uz) Функционал
Тарих
Сценарий
Сценарий структураси
Мисоллар
*
Агар
*
Агар
*
Унда
*
Ва
*
Лекин
Бирок
Аммо
Vietnamese (vi) Tính năng
Bối cảnh
Tình huống
Kịch bản
Khung tình huống
Khung kịch bản
Dữ liệu
*
Biết
Cho
*
Khi
*
Thì
*

*
Nhưng
Chinese simplified (zh-CN) 功能
背景
场景
剧本
场景大纲
剧本大纲
例子
*
假如
假设
假定
*

*
那么
*
而且
并且
同时
*
但是
Chinese traditional (zh-TW) 功能
背景
場景
劇本
場景大綱
劇本大綱
例子
*
假如
假設
假定
*

*
那麼
*
而且
並且
同時
*
但是

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